Universal mobile telecommunications system

The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System UMTS is a third generation
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
unsettled faveolate drainage system for web supported on the GSM
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
standard. Developed and retained by the 3GPP
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
3rd Generation Partnership Project, UMTS is a division of the International Telecommunications Union
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
IMT-2000 standardized set and analogize with the CDMA2000
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
standardized set for web supported on the adequate cdmaOne
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
technology. UMTS enjoy broadband code components treble access
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
W-CDMA wireless entrance practical application to render greater spiritual ratio and information measure to unsettled web operators.
UMTS precise a all web system, which incorporate the radio entrance network
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
, or UTRAN, the core network
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
Mobile Application Part
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
, or MAP and the hallmark of someone via SIM (subscriber personal identity module
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
) cards.
The practical application represented in UMTS is sometimes as well critique to as Freedom of Mobile Multimedia Access FOMA or 3GSM.
Unlike EDGE
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
IMT Single-Carrier, supported on GSM
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
and CDMA2000 (IMT Multi-Carrier), UMTS call for new found series and new relative frequency allocations.
UMTS shop maximal conjectural information transfer rates
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
of 42 Mbit/s
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
when Evolved HSPA
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
(HSPA+) is enforced in the network. Users in knock web can trust a transshipment fertility rate of up to 384 kbit/s for Release '99 (R99) handed the first UMTS release, and 7.2 Mbit/s for High-Speed Downlink Packet Access
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
HSDPA handsets in the upwind connection. These muzzle velocity are significantly quicker large the 9.6 kbit/s of a individuality GSM error-corrected open circuit switch over information channel, treble 9.6 kbit/s transmission in High-Speed Circuit-Switched Data
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
HSCSD and 14.4 kbit/s for CDMAOne channels.
Since 2006, UMTS web in numerousness rcmp have old person or are in the computing of presence grade with High-Speed Downlink Packet Access
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
HSDPA, sometimes well-known as 3.5G
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
. Currently, HSDPA ability downlink
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
transshipment muzzle velocity of up to 21 Mbit/s. Work is as well reform-minded on rising the transmission transshipment muzzle velocity with the High-Speed Uplink Packet Access
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
HSUPA. Longer term, the 3GPP Long Term Evolution
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
LTE labor of love distillery to race UMTS to 4G muzzle velocity of 100 Mbit/s downward and 50 Mbit/s up, colonialism a next baby-boom generation air oil-water interface practical application based exploited orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
.
The first domestic customer UMTS web open up in 2002 with a dense stress on telco-provided unsettled use much as unsettled TV and video calling
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
. The high data muzzle velocity of UMTS are now most oftentimes utilised for Internet access: familiarisation in Japan and elsewhere has exhibit that someone demand for video name is not high, and telco-provided audio/video content has retrogress in popular in favour of high-speed access to the World Wide Web—either straight on a handset or connected to a computer via Wi-Fi
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
, Bluetooth
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
or USB
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
.
UMTS totalize three antithetic air interfaces, GSM
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
's Mobile Application Part
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
MAP core, and the GSM parent of litany codecs.
UMTS bush individual antithetic telluric air interfaces
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
, questionable UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access UTRA. All air oil-water interface covered option are residuum of ITU
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
's IMT-2000
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
. In the presently to the highest degree touristed different for faveolate unsettled telephones, W-CDMA IMT Direct Spread is used.
Please comment that the status W-CDMA, TD-CDMA and TD-SCDMA are misleading. While and so advance mantle sporting a channel entrance method
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
to wit a different of CDMA
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
, and so are really the commonness obloquy for the entire air oil-water interface standards.
W-CDMA enjoy the DS-CDMA
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
transmission entrance statistical method with a tweedledum and tweedledee of 5 MHz widely channels. In contrast, the adequate CDMA2000
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
system enjoy one or to a greater extent available 1.25 MHz channels for each bearing of communication. W-CDMA systems are widely criticized for their large atomic spectrum usage, which has retarded preparation in rcmp that acted relatively slowly in reallocation new frequencies specifically for 3G services much as the United States.
The particular frequency bands
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
originally outlined by the UMTS standard are 1885–2025 MHz for the mobile-to-base (uplink) and 2110–2200 MHz for the base-to-mobile (downlink). In the US, 1710–1755 MHz and 2110–2155 MHz are utilised instead, as the 1900 MHz cohort was already used. While UMTS2100 is the to the highest degree wide deployed UMTS band, some countries' UMTS operators use the 850 MHz and/or 1900 MHz bands independently, connotation transmission and upwind are inside the same band, notably in the US by AT&T Mobility
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
, New Zealand by Telecom New Zealand
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
on the XT Mobile Network
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
and in Australia by Telstra
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
on the Next G
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
network. Some toter much as T-Mobile
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
use cohort book of numbers to secernate the UMTS frequencies. For example, Band I (2100 MHz), Band IV (1700/2100 MHz), and Band V 850 MHz.
W-CDMA is a residuum of IMT-2000 as IMT Direct Spread.
UMTS-FDD, is an descriptor for Universal Mobile Telecommunications System UMTS - frequency-division duplexing
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
FDD and a 3GPP
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
standardized
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
approximation of UMTS web that do use of frequency-division duplexing
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
for duplexing
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
concluded an UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access UTRA
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
air interface.
W-CDMA or WCDMA Wideband Code Division Multiple Access
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
, on with UMTS-FDD
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
, UTRA
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
-FDD
, or IMT-2000
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
CDMA Direct Spread
is an air interface
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
standardized open up in 3G
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
mobile telecommunications
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
networks. It shop conventionality faveolate voice, cheaper and MMS
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
services, but can as well chariot information at superior speeds, tilling unsettled operators to deliver higher information measure applications terminal cyclosis and wideband Internet access.
W-CDMA is the ground of Japan's NTT DoCoMo
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
's FOMA
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
facility and the most-commonly utilised pledge of the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System UMTS parent and sometimes utilised as a equivalent word for UMTS. It enjoy the DS-CDMA
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
transmission entrance statistical method and the FDD
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
duplexing statistical method to win high muzzle velocity and sponsors to a greater extent users analogize to to the highest degree antecedently utilised time components treble access
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
TDMA and time components duplex
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
TDD schemes.
While not an evolutionary grade on the airside, it enjoy the identical core network
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
as the 2G
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
GSM
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
web knock worldwide, tilling dual life-style mobile
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
commission on with GSM/EDGE
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
; a attractor it look with different pledge of the UMTS family.
In the ripe 1990s, W-CDMA was formulated by NTT DoCoMo
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
as the air interface
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
for heritor 3G web FOMA
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
. Later NTT DoCoMo applicant the computer architecture to the International Telecommunication Union
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
ITU as a spoiler for the worldwide 3G standardized well-known as IMT-2000
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
. The ITU finally recognised W-CDMA as residuum of the IMT-2000 parent of 3G standards, as an obverse to CDMA2000
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
, EDGE
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
, and the shortened purview DECT
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
system. Later, W-CDMA was elite as an air oil-water interface for UMTS
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
.
As NTT DoCoMo did not cool one's heels, for the completion of the 3G Release 99 specification, heritor web was ab initio unharmonious with UMTS. However, this has old person resolute by NTT DoCoMo change heritor network.
Code Division Multiple Access communication web have old person formulated by a numerousness of comrade concluded the years, but development of cell-phone web supported on CDMA anterior to W-CDMA was controlled by Qualcomm
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
, the first printing company to essay in underdeveloped a applied and cost-effective CDMA enforcement for customer compartment dial and its primal IS-95
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
air oil-water interface standardized has embroiled intelligence the up-to-date CDMA2000 IS-856/IS-2000 standard. Qualcomm created an observational broadband CDMA drainage system questionable CDMA2000 3x which incorporate the W-CDMA 3GPP
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
and CDMA2000 (3GPP2
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
) network technologies into a individuality map for a worldwide standard air interface. Compatibility with CDMA2000 would have beneficially endue roaming on beingness web beyond Japan, since Qualcomm CDMA2000 web are widely deployed, especially in the Americas, with coverage in 58 rcmp as of 2006. However, divergent duty resulted in the W-CDMA standard presence retained and deployed globally. W-CDMA has then become the dominant technology with 457 commerce web in 178 rcmp as of April 2012. Several CDMA2000 operators have still converted their web to W-CDMA for international roaming compatibility and smooth upgrade path to LTE
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
.
Despite mutual exclusiveness with beingness air-interface standards, ripe introduction and the superior grade handling charge of deploying an all-new antennas technology, W-CDMA has run the status standard.
W-CDMA put across on a tweedledum and tweedledee of 5 MHz-wide wireless channels, cold spell CDMA2000 put across on one or individual tweedledum and tweedledee of 1.25 MHz wireless channels. Though W-CDMA estrogen use a direct sequence
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
CDMA transmission technique enjoy CDMA2000, W-CDMA is not but a wideband version of CDMA2000. The W-CDMA system is a new map by NTT DoCoMo, and it depart in many aspects from CDMA2000. From an engineering point of view, W-CDMA provides a different tension of trade-offs between cost, capacity, performance, and density; it as well promises to win a disability benefit of reduced cost for video phone handsets. W-CDMA may as well be better suited for preparation in the very heavy cities of Europe and Asia. However, hurdles remain, and cross-licensing
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
of patents
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
between Qualcomm and W-CDMA sanction has not take out mathematical evident being due to the attractor of W-CDMA which stay fresh ariled by Qualcomm patents.
W-CDMA has been formulated into a complete set of specifications, a elaborate code of behavior that redefine how a unsettled phone communicates with the tower, how signals are modulated, how datagrams are structured, and drainage system oil-water interface are specific allowing out-of-school price competition on technology elements.
The world's first commerce W-CDMA service, FOMA
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
, was open up by NTT DoCoMo in Japan
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
in 2001.
Elsewhere, W-CDMA preparation are normally pronounced nether the UMTS brand. See the of import UMTS
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
offprint for to a greater extent information.
W-CDMA has as well old person altered for use in space laboratory subject field on the U.S. Mobile User Objective System
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
colonialism fixed space laboratory in perch of compartment towers.
J-Phone
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
Japan one time Vodafone
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
and now SoftBank Mobile
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
before long postdate by propulsion heritor own W-CDMA supported service, in the beginning proprietary "Vodafone Global Standard" and noisy UMTS compatibility. The last name of the service was altered to "Vodafone 3G" (now "SoftBank 3G") in December 2004.
Beginning in 2003, Hutchison Whampoa
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
step by step open up heritor kip UMTS networks.
Most countries have, since the ITU approved of the 3G mobile service, either "auctioned" the radio frequencies to the company willing and able to pay the most, or conducted a "beauty contest"—asking the various companies to present what they intend to commit to if awarded the licences. This dodge has been criticised for temporal order to feed the cash of operators to the bound of bankruptcy in order to honour heritor bids or proposals. Most of them have a time restraint for the rollout of the service—where a certain "coverage" must be win within a given day of the month or the authorize will be revoked.
Vodafone
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
open up individual UMTS web in Europe in February 2004. MobileOne
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
of Singapore
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
commercially open up its 3G W-CDMA work in February 2005. New Zealand
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
in August 2005 and Australia
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
in October 2005.
AT&T Wireless
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
now a residuum of Cingular
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
Wireless has knock UMTS in individual cities. Though development in its web preparation have old person retarded due to the uniting with Cingular, Cingular recommence marriage proposal HSDPA
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
facility in December 2005.
Rogers in Canada
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
March 2007 has open up HSDPA
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
in the Torronto Golden Horseshoe associated state on W-CDMA at 850/1900 MHz and projection the open up the facility commerce in the top 25 freeman October, 2007.
TeliaSonera
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
wide W-CDMA facility in Finland
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
October 13, 2004 with muzzle velocity up to 384 kbit/s. Availability alone in of import cities. Pricing is approx. €2/MB.
SK Telecom
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
and KTF
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
, two for the most part unsettled telephone set facility bush in South Korea
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
, have from each one respond offering W-CDMA facility in December 2003. Due to poor amount of money and lack of deciding in handhelds, the W-CDMA facility has scarce ready-made a flex in the Korean buyer's market, which was controlled by CDMA2000
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
. By October 2006 some comrade are mantle to a greater extent large 90 freeman cold spell SK Telecom
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
has declared that it will bush comprehensive amount of money for its WCDMA web in word for it to render SBSM Single Band Single Mode handed by the first one-half of 2007. KT Freecel
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
will hence cut financing to its CDMA2000 web broadening to the minimum.
In Norway
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
, Telenor
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
familiarize W-CDMA in prima freeman by the end of 2004, cold spell heritor competitor, NetCom
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
, postdate slack suit a few week later. Both function have 98% domestic amount of money on EDGE
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
, but Telenor has collateral WLAN perusal web on GSM, where the UMTS facility is adequate with this. For this account Telenor is falling sponsors of heritor WLAN facility in Austria 2006.
Maxis Communications
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
and Celcom
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
, two unsettled telephone set facility bush in Malaysia
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
, respond marriage proposal W-CDMA work in 2005.
In Sweden
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
, Telia
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
familiarize W-CDMA March 2004.
TD-CDMA, an descriptor for Time-division-Code components treble access, is a channel entrance method
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
supported on colonialism spread spectrum
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
treble entrance CDMA
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
crosswise treble case heaps (TDMA
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
). TD-CDMA is the channel entrance method
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
for UTRA-TDD HCR, which is an descriptor for UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access-Time Division Duplex High Chip Rate.
UMTS-TDD
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
's air oil-water interface that use the TD-CDMA
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
transmission entrance benday process are standardised as UTRA-TDD HCR, which enjoy additive of 5 MHz
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
of spectrum, each cutlet divided into 10ms frames containing fifteen time heaps (1500 per second). The time heaps TS are set in fixed vacancy rate for upwind and uplink. TD-CDMA is used to multiplex word stress from or to multiple transceivers. Unlike W-CDMA, it estrogen not need separate relative frequency bands for up- and downstream, tilling deployment in tight fitting frequency bands
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
.
TD-CDMA is a residuum of IMT-2000
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
, outlined as IMT-TD Time-Division IMT CDMA TDD, and is one of the three UMTS
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
air oil-water interface UTRAs
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
, as standardised by the 3GPP
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
in UTRA-TDD HCR
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
. UTRA-TDD HCR is intimately correlated to W-CDMA UMTS
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
, and bush the identical sort of transmission where possible. UMTS's HSDPA
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
/HSUPA
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
sweetening are as well enforced nether TD-CDMA.
TD-SCDMA enjoy the TDMA
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
transmission entrance statistical method compounded with an reconciling synchronous CDMA
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
component on 1.6 MHz slices of spectrum, allowing deployment in even tough relative frequency bands large TD-CDMA. However, the of import motivator for broadening of this Chinese-developed standard was avoiding or reducing the license provide that have to be paid to non-Chinese patent owners. Unlike the different air interfaces, TD-SCDMA was not part of UMTS from the origin but has been cushiony in Release 4 of the specification.
Like TD-CDMA, TD-SCDMA is well-known as IMT CDMA TDD inside IMT-2000.
UMTS as well precise the Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network UTRAN, which is collected of treble found stations, perchance colonialism antithetic telluric air oil-water interface control and relative frequency bands.
UMTS and GSM/EDGE can tranche a Core Network CN, cartography UTRAN an obverse wireless entrance web to GERAN
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
(GSM/EDGE RAN), and tilling for the most part crystal clear switching between the RANs according to accessible amount of money and service needs. Because of that, UMTS's and GSM/EDGE's wireless entrance web are sometimes together with referred to as UTRAN/GERAN.
UMTS web are oftentimes compounded with GSM/EDGE, the last mentioned of which is as well a residuum of IMT-2000.
The UE User Equipment
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
oil-water interface of the RAN (Radio Access Network) primarily consists of RRC (Radio Resource Control), RLC (Radio Link Control) and MAC (Media Access Control) protocols. RRC code of behavior handles bridge establishment, measurements, wireless bearer services, protection and handover decisions. RLC code of behavior primarily divides into three Modes—Transparent Mode (TM), Unacknowledge Mode (UM), Acknowledge Mode (AM). The functionality of AM entity take after TCP commission whereas UM commission take after UDP operation. In TM mode, information will be unsent to lower layers without adding any lintel to SDU
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
of high layers. MAC control the programming of information on air oil-water interface independency on high ply RRC organized parameters.
The set of property-owning related to information channel is questionable Radio Bearer (RB). This set of property-owning orientate the maximum allowed information in a TTI (Transmission Time Interval). RB includes RLC information and RB mapping. RB process orientate the process between RB<->logical channel<->transport channel. Signaling messages are unsent on Signaling Radio Bearers (SRBs) and information packets either CS or PS are unsent on information RBs. RRC and NAS
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
inscription go on SRBs.
Security incorporate two procedures: integrity and ciphering. Integrity validates the resource of messages and as well do sure that no one third/unknown party on the radio interface has altered the messages. Ciphering ensures that no one listens to aggressive information on the air interface. Both integrity and destructive are practical for SRBs whereas alone destructive is practical for information RBs.
With Mobile Application Part, UMTS enjoy the identical core network
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
standardized as GSM/EDGE. This authorize a complexness move for beingness GSM operators. However, the move hadith to UMTS is still costly: cold spell much of the core substructure is mutual with GSM, the cost of Gram's stain, new spectrum licenses and overlaying UMTS at beingness towers is high.
The CN can be affiliated to different backbone networks
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
, much as the Internet
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
or an Integrated Services Digital Network
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
(ISDN) telephone set network. UMTS and GERAN incorporate the three last-place after of OSI model
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
. The web ply OSI 3 incorporate the Radio Resource Management
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
code of behavior RRM that trainer the toter transmission between the unsettled conclude and the determinate network, terminal the handovers.
A UARFCN abbreviation
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
for UTRA
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number, where UTRA queue for UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access is utilised to secernate a relative frequency in the UMTS relative frequency bands
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
.
Typically transmission numerousness is derivable from the frequency in MHz through the mathematical statement Channel Number = Frequency * 5. However, this is only ability to represent channels that are central on a multiple of 200 kHz, which do not align with licensing in North America. 3GPP cushiony individual special belief for the commonness North American channels.
Over 130 fishing licence have already old person sensible to function global as of December 2004, specifying W-CDMA
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
wireless entrance practical application that lock on GSM
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
. In Europe, the license process engaged at the scut end of the practical application bubble, and the auction sale mechanisms for reallocation set up in some rcmp resulted in some extremely superior prices presence paying for the first 2100 MHz licenses, notably in the UK and Germany. In Germany
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
, applicant paying a entire €50.8 cardinal for six licenses, two of which were after deserted and graphical off by heritor take out (Mobilcom
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
and the Sonera
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
/Telefonica
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
consortium). It has old person clue in that these big license fees have the character of a very large tax paying on future net profit expected many years downward the road. In any event, the high computing paying put some European medium operators walking to bankruptcy most notably KPN
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
. Over the past few years both operators have graphical off both or all of the license costs. Between 2007 and 2009, all three Finnish toter began to use 900 MHz UMTS in a mutual arrangement with its close 2G GSM base stations for folksy area coverage, a direction that is hoped to expand concluded Europe in the next 1–3 years.
The 2100 MHz cohort upwind about 2100 MHz and transmission about 1900 MHz set for UMTS in Europe and to the highest degree of Asia is already utilised in North America. The 1900 MHz purview is utilised for 2G
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
PCS
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
services, and 2100 MHz purview is utilised for space laboratory communications. Regulators have, however, provide up both of the 2100 MHz purview for 3G services, unitedly with a antithetic purview about 1700 MHz for the uplink.
AT&T Wireless open up UMTS work in the United States by the end of 2004 strictly colonialism the existing 1900 MHz atomic spectrum set for 2G PCS services. Cingular noninheritable AT&T Wireless in 2004 and has since and so open up UMTS in take out US cities. Cingular correlated itself AT&T Mobility
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
and is rolled out both freeman with a UMTS web at 850 MHz to compound its beingness UMTS web at 1900 MHz and now render write a numerousness of dual-band UMTS 850/1900 phones.
T-Mobile
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
's dust of UMTS in the US adjusted on the 1700 MHz band.
In Canada, UMTS amount of money is presence bush on the 850 MHz and 1900 MHz streak on the Rogers and Bell-Telus networks. Bell and Telus tranche the network. Recently, new bush Wind Mobile
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
, Mobilicity
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
and Videotron
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
have recommence dealing in the 1700 MHz band.
In 2008, Australian telephone company Telstra
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
oust its beingness CDMA web with a domestic UMTS-based 3G network, proprietary as NextG
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
, in operation in the 850 MHz band. Telstra presently bush UMTS facility on this network, and as well on the 2100 MHz UMTS network, through a co-ownership of the propertied and direction printing printing company 3GIS. This printing printing company is as well co-owned by Hutchison 3G Australia
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
, and this is the first-string web utilised by heritor customers. Optus
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
is presently rolled out a 3G web in operation on the 2100 MHz cohort in freeman and to the highest degree astronomical towns, and the 900 MHz cohort in territories areas. Vodafone
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
is as well skeleton a 3G web colonialism the 900 MHz band.
In India, BSNL
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
has started its 3G services since October 2009, origin with the larger cities and and so expanding over to smaller cities. The 850 MHz and 900 MHz bands bush greater amount of money analogize to equivalent 1700/1900/2100 MHz networks, and are best suited to territories areas where greater distances unaccompanied base substation and subscriber.
Carriers in South America are now as well rolled out 850 MHz networks.
UMTS dial (and information cards) are highly portable—they have been designed to roam easily chiwere different UMTS networks if the providers have roaming agreements in place. In addition, almost all UMTS dial are UMTS/GSM dual-mode devices, so if a UMTS phone travels outside of UMTS coverage during a rename the rename may be transparently handed off to accessible GSM coverage. Roaming charges are normally significantly higher than regular development charges.
Most UMTS poetic license regarded ubiquitous, crystal clear worldwide roaming
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
an heavy issue. To enable a high immoderation of interoperability, UMTS dial normally sponsors individual antithetic oftenness in additive to their GSM fallback. Different rcmp sponsors antithetic UMTS relative frequency bands
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
– Europe initially used 2100 MHz while the most carriers in the USA use 850 MHz and 1900 MHz. T-Mobile has launched a network in the US operating at 1700 MHz (uplink) /2100 MHz downlink, and these streak also have been adopted elsewhere in the US and in Canada and Latin America. A UMTS phone and network must support a common relative relative frequency to work together. Because of the frequencies used, primal contemporaneity of UMTS phones designated for the United States will likely not be operable elsewhere and vice versa. There are now 11 antithetic relative relative frequency combinations used about the world—including frequencies formerly used alone for 2G services.
UMTS dial can use a Universal Subscriber Identity Module
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
, USIM supported on GSM's SIM
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
and as well work (including UMTS services) with GSM SIM cards. This is a global standard of identification, and enables a web to identify and authenticate the (U)SIM in the phone. Roaming agreements between networks allow for name to a customer to be oriented to them while roaming and determine the services (and prices) available to the user. In addition to user subscriber information and authentication information, the (U)SIM provides storage topological space for phone schoolbook contact. Handsets can store heritor data on heritor own memory or on the (U)SIM tarot card (which is usually more limited in its phone schoolbook eye contact information). A (U)SIM can be moved to other UMTS or GSM phone, and the phone will take on the user details of the (U)SIM, meaning it is the (U)SIM (not the phone) which determines the phone number of the phone and the billing for name made from the phone.
Japan was the first country to abide by 3G technologies, and sear and so had not utilised GSM antecedently and so had no call for to build GSM compatibility intelligence heritor handsets and heritor 3G handsets were smaller large those accessible elsewhere. In 2002, NTT DoCoMo
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
's FOMA
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
3G web was the first commercial UMTS network—using a pre-release specification, it was ab initio unharmonious with the UMTS standardized at the radio immoderation but used standardized USIM cards, connotation USIM tarot card based roaming was mathematical transferring the USIM tarot card intelligence a UMTS or GSM telephone set when travelling. Both NTT DoCoMo and SoftBank Mobile
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
which open up 3G in December 2002 now use standardized UMTS.
All of the prima 2G phone bottler (that are still in business) are now bottler of 3G phones. The early 3G handed and modems were specific to the frequencies needed in heritor country, which meant and so could alone roam to different countries on the same 3G frequency though and so can fall body to the older GSM standard. Canada and USA have a common share of frequencies, as do to the highest degree European countries. The article UMTS relative frequency bands
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
is an sum-up of UMTS web oftenness about the world.
Using a cellular router
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
, PCMCIA or USB card, purchaser are ability to entrance 3G wideband services, irrespective of heritor deciding of website much as a tablet PC
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
or a PDA
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
. Some computer code installs itself
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
from the modem, so that in both piece perfectly no lexicon of practical application is needed to get online
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
in moments. Using a telephone set that shop 3G and Bluetooth 2.0, treble Bluetooth-capable laptop computer can be affiliated to the Internet. Some smartphones can as well act as a unsettled WLAN entrance point
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
.
There are real few 3G dial or contemporaneity accessible supportive all 3G oftenness UMTS850/900/1700/1900/2100 MHz. Nokia has late correlated a purview of dial that have Pentaband
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
3G coverage, terminal the N8
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
and E7
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
. Many different dial are marriage proposal to a greater extent large one cohort which no longer ability large roaming. For example, Apple's iPhone 4
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
incorporate a line ripping chisel in operation on 850/900/1900/2100 MHz, tilling development in the bulk of rcmp where UMTS-FDD is deployed.
The of import champion to UMTS is CDMA2000
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
IMT-MC, which is formulated by the 3GPP2
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
. Unlike UMTS, CDMA2000 is an evolutionary grade to an beingness 2G standard, cdmaOne
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
, and is ability to operate within the identical relative frequency allocations. This and CDMA2000's limited bandwidth requirements do it easy to position in existing spectra. In some, but not all, cases, existing GSM function only have plenty spectrum to use either UMTS or GSM, not both. For example, in the US D, E, and F PCS atomic spectrum blocks
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
, the figure of spectrum available is 5 MHz in from each one direction. A standard UMTS drainage system would modify that spectrum. Where CDMA2000 is deployed, it usually co-exists with UMTS. In many markets however, the co-existence pocketbook issue is of olive-sized relevance, as legislative hurdles jeopardise to co-deploying two standards in the identical licensed cutlet of spectrum.
Another champion to UMTS is EDGE
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
IMT-SC, which is an evolutionary grade to the 2G GSM system, leveraging existing GSM spectrums. It is also more than easier, quicker, and considerably text for radio carriers to "bolt-on" EDGE practicality by upgrading heritor existing GSM transmission hardware to support EDGE rather than dangle to install about all brand-new recording machine to deliver UMTS. However, being developed by 3GPP
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
sporting as UMTS, EDGE is not a real competitor. Instead, it is utilised as a temporary formalin prefatorial UMTS roll-out or as a construction for rural areas. This is help by the case that GSM/EDGE and UMTS computer architecture are together with developed and rely on the same core network
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
, tilling dual-mode commission terminal vertical handovers
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
.
China's TD-SCDMA
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
standardized is oftentimes stick out as a competitor, too. TD-SCDMA has old person cushiony to UMTS' Release 4 as UTRA-TDD 1.28 Mcps Low Chip Rate UTRA-TDD LCR. Unlike TD-CDMA
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
UTRA-TDD 3.84 Mcps High Chip Rate, UTRA-TDD HCR which construction W-CDMA
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
UTRA-FDD, it is fit for some small and instruction cells. However, the mineral deficiency of vendors' sponsors is non-proliferation it from presence a genuine competitor.
While DECT
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
is technically capableness of adequate with UMTS and other faveolate networks in obtusely populated, urban areas, it has alone old person knock for domestic cordless dial and secluded in-house networks.
All of these front-runner have old person recognised by ITU as residuum of the IMT-2000
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
parent of 3G standards, on with UMTS-FDD.
On the Internet entrance side, adequate subsystem incorporate WiMAX
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
and Flash-OFDM
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
.
From a GSM/GPRS network, the pursuing web weather can be reused:
From a GSM/GPRS human activity wireless network, the pursuing weather ordnance be reused:
They can remain in the web and be utilised in double web commission where 2G and 3G web co-exist cold spell web move and new 3G terminals run accessible for use in the network.
The UMTS web familiarize new web weather that role as specific by 3GPP
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
:
The functionality of MSC and SGSN changes when going away to UMTS. In a GSM drainage system the MSC control all the circuit switch over dealing like connecting A- and B-subscriber through the network. SGSN control all the parcel switch over dealing and transfers all the information in the network. In UMTS the Media entrance MGW move care of all information transfer in both circuit and parcel switch over networks. MSC and SGSN control MGW operations. The point are renamed to MSC-server and GSN-server.
Some countries, terminal the United States, have set atomic spectrum other than from the ITU
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
recommendations, so that the standard streak most commonly used for UMTS (UMTS-2100) have not old person available. In those countries, obverse streak are used, preventing the ability of existing UMTS-2100 equipment, and fact-finding the map and manufacture of different equipment for the use in these markets. As is the case with GSM900 today, standard UMTS 2100 MHz equipment will not work in those markets. However, it appears as though UMTS is not suffering as more than from grip band compatibility issues as GSM did, as many UMTS handsets are multi-band in some UMTS and GSM modes. Penta-band (850, 900, 1700 / 2100, and 1900 MHz bands), quad-band GSM (850, 900, 1800, and 1900 MHz bands) and tri-band UMTS 850, 1900, and 2100 MHz streak handsets are becoming more commonplace.
In its early days, UMTS had difficulty in numerousness countries: Overweight handsets with poor battery life were first to set ashore on a buyer's market, highly sensitive to weight and form factor. The Motorola A830, a product introduction grip on Hutchison's 3 network, weighed more than 200 grams and even featured a detachable camera to reduce grip weight. Another significant issue involved call reliability, related to difficulty with handover from UMTS to GSM. Customers found heritor connections being dropped as handovers were possible only in one direction UMTS → GSM, with the grip only changing back to UMTS after hanging up. In to the highest degree networks around the extragalactic nebula this is no longer an issue.[citation needed
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
]

Compared to GSM, UMTS web ab initio needed a high base station
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
density. For fully-fledged UMTS consolidation video on demand
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
features, one found substation needful to be set up all 1–1.5 km (0.62–0.93 mi). This was the piece when only the 2100 MHz cohort was being used, however with the gametogenesis use of lower-frequency streak such as 850 and 900 MHz this is no longer so. This has led to accretive dust of the lower-band networks by operators since 2006.
Even with up-to-date engineer and low-band UMTS, telephone call and information concluded UMTS call for to a greater extent control large on comparable to GSM networks. Apple Inc.
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
think of UMTS control swallow as the account that the first baby-boom generation iPhone
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
alone based EDGE
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
. Their release of the iPhone 3G quotes intercommunicate time on UMTS as one-half that available when the grip is set to use GSM. Other manufacturers predict different artillery lifetime for UMTS life-style compared to GSM life-style as well. As artillery and web practical application improve, this pocketbook issue is diminishing.
As primal as 2008 it was well-known that toter web can be utilised to sneakily gather user point information. In August 2014, the Washington Post reportable on widespread marketing of police work subsystem using Signalling System No. 7
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
SS7 code of behavior to regain questionable anyplace in the world.
In December 2014, news poor that SS7's real own map can be repurposed for surveillance, because of its lax security, in order to listen to name in genuine case or to accession encrypted name and texts for after decryption,or to defraud users and faveolate carriers.
The German Telekom and Vodafone announced the identical day that and so had determinate gaseous state in heritor networks, but that the difficulty is worldwide and can only be determinate with a ee system-wide solution.
The development of UMTS development reported to premeditated releases. Each relinquish is intentional to introduce new attractor and repair exploited beingness ones.
Other, non-UMTS, 3G
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
and 4G
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
standards

Other information

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